Jharkhand State – a result of “Revolutions”
Jharkhand State was established on 15th November 2000. The State is created by carving out southern districts of Bihar. Till today Jharkhand consists of 24 districts. More than 17 years passed from its existence. Jharkhand state is a result of a long running revolution. Its history is too old. Many revolutions and protest have been done before existence of Jharkhand as Indian State.
Chhotanagpur was ruled by the Moguls during Jahangir’s Mandate. Around 1765 Christian Community was entered in Chhotanagpur. Since then Chhotanagpur and Santhal witnessed many of little and large movements. Almost 90 years after in 1855-56 there was the great uprising of the Santhals against the British but was brutally suppressed. Even after that many of protest was done one after another.
Foundation of Jharkhand Party
Before 1912 Bihar (Including Jharkhand) was part of Bengal. Bengal was once the largest colonial subdivision and province of British India. At that period Chhotanagpur was known as South-West-Frontier of Bengal Presidency. During the British rule the Tribes were imposed heavier burdens. They also faced off the cruelty and violence during the British Emperor.
In 1938 ‘Aadivasi Mahasabha’ was conducted in the leadership of Jaipal Singh Munda. The purpose of this mahasabha was to protect Tribal Civilization and uplift Tribal Culture. This was the first time when voice has been raised to form Jharkhand as a separated state of India. Later in 1949 ‘Aadivasi Mahasabha’ framed in to a political party. On 5th March 1949 Jharkhand Party came in to existence as new political party. Jaipal Singh Munda was elected as the Precedent and Idsen Deba became general secretary of this party.
Jaipal Singh Munda
Jaipal Singh Munda, who played the most important role in the making of Jharkhand State, is also known as Pramod Pahan. He was born on 3rd January 1903 in Takra, Pahan Toli village of what was then Khunti subdivision of the then District of Ranchi in the state of Jharkhand. Now Khunti is declared district. He was a politician, writer and sportsman but more than that he was also a gifted speaker. As sportsman he was a brilliant hokey player. He also had an excellent quality of leadership this is why he was also called “Marang Gomke” by the Tribes of Chhotanagpur which means “Great leader”.
Congress – Jharkhand party “Merger”
The Party done well in 1952 elections and solidified 32 seats out of 352. This was well enough for Jharkhand Party becoming a major opposition in Bihar Assembly. And then demand for Jharkhand as a separate Indian State became much stronger. But on 20th June 1963 Jharkhand Party merged with Indian National Congress. It was said that the process of the merger between All India Congress and Jharkhand Party in the continuation since the Independence of India, came to end on 20th June 1963. After the “Merger” the revolution of Jharkhand State became demoralized for few years but not yet finished.
Emergence of “Jharkhand Mukti Morcha”
After merger with Congress, Jharkhand Party had lost the existence but in 1972 once again a party was founded in the leadership of Shibu Soren named “Jharkhand Mukti Morcha” which gave new direction to “Jharkhand Andolan”. In 1981 Bhartiya Communist Party supported the “Jharkhand Andolan”. In 1985 Congress (I) Legislator Devendra Nath Champia put the demand to govern Chhotanagpur area under Central Government. The growing strength of the JMM was reflected in the Lok Saba and Assembly elections and the demand for a statehood for the first time shook the corridors of power with the then prime minister of India Mr. Rajiv Gandhi setting up a Committee on Jharkhand Matters(CoJM) in 1989. On Jan 6 Lalu 1994 Prasad Yadav declared in Ranchi that Jharkhand development autonomous council bill will be passed in budget session. In 1995 Jharkhand area autonomous council was formed which comprised of 18 districts of Santhal Pargana and Chotnagpur and Shibu Soren was nominated as the Chairman.
On 2nd August 2000 the bill to create a separate state of Jharkhand to be carved out of Bihar was passed in Lok Saba. On 11th August 2000 Parliament approved the formation of Jharkhand when the Rajya Sabha passed the Bihar reorganization bill to carve out a new state out of Bihar’s northern region. On 25th August 2000 President Mr. K.R. Narayanan approved the Bihar reorganization bill 2000. On 12th October 2000 the center has issued the gazette notification showing November 15 2000 as the appointed date for the formation of new Jharkhand Government.
On 15th November 2000 Jharkhand was declared 28th State of India.
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